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The Lead- in Skills of English Teaching in Primary School

时间:2010-06-30 09:13 来源:觉海小学 作者:马迪 点击:
核心提示:Abstract: The most important part of a successful English class is the lead-in part, which plays an important role in improving the teaching results. As the saying goes, Well begun is half done. A good lead-in is an effective link between

  Abstract: The most important part of a successful English class is the lead-in part, which plays an important role in improving the teaching results. As the saying goes, “Well begun is half done.” A good lead-in is an effective link between teaching and learning. A proper lead-in is the inner bridge of communicating between students and teachers, which influences silently students’ formation of basic concept and the attitudes towards teacher and life. As teachers, we should learn how to design a good lead-in with some techniques so that the students’ interest will be fully aroused beforehand. The students in primary school just begin to learn English, and their vocabulary is little. In order to get better teaching effect, teachers should design the lead-ins carefully. When teachers are designing lead-ins, some skills should be considered.
  Keywords: lead-in; English; teaching; primary school
  摘要:一堂成功的英语课最重要的部分就是导入环节,在提高课堂效果中,它起着举足轻重的作用。正所谓“好的开端是成功的一半。”一个好的导入是教与学的纽带,是在师生心灵深处架起的交流互动的桥梁,在潜移默化中影响着学生对基本概念的形成和对老师和人生的态度。对老师而言,我们要学会如何设计出能充分调动学生兴趣的导入环节。小学生刚刚开始学英语,他们的词汇量小。为了达到更好的教学效果,老师设计导入时要多用心。在设计过程中,一些技巧应当注意。
  关键词:导入;英语;教学;小学
  Chapter 1 Introduction
  English classroom teaching is an important way that the students study English. “Well begun is half done.” A lead-in in a new class, which plays an important part in improving the teaching results, is the first step of teaching course. If the first step is not proper, the students will find English is not interesting and lose interest in learning it. A proper lead-in can catch the students’ attention quickly, make the class lively, and make the students learn actively as well. Teachers can use kinds of methods to improve students’ interest at the beginning of the class through lead-ins. As a result, the whole procedure can go smoothly and a good effect can be achieved. Because primary students have learned English for a short time, their vocabulary is little. The teaching difficulty is big. Therefore, English teachers should pay more attention to the skills and difficulty when designing lead-ins.
  Chapter 2 The Functions of Lead-ins
  As the saying goes, “Well begun is half done.” A good lead-in, the beginning of a new class, has the same effect. The functions of lead-ins are as follows:
  2.1 Establishing the Base of Classroom Teaching
  The classroom teaching is entire, and the lead-in part is the cornerstone of the whole teaching process. If the classroom teaching is the dominoes, the lead-in part is the first card, which decides the smoothness of the teaching procedure. Or else, it will break the smoothness and beauty of the entire teaching.
  2.2 Building the Bridge of Communicating
  Lead-ins not only help communicate with each other between teachers and students, cultivate students’ emotion of respecting and trusting, but also help decrease the distance between students and the textbooks, and reduce the difficulty of studying.
  2.3 Attracting Students’ Attention
  The first important function of lead-ins is to attract students’ attention. As the students of primary school, they can’t control themselves very well, the design of lead-in part is especially the key point that help them self-control. The meaning of teaching is to enlighten students to participate in the classroom teaching.
  2.4 Cultivating Students’ Learning Motivation
  Learning motivation is the inner need which encourages and guides students to study. Interest which inspires students’ learning motivation is a kind of driving power to learn something. The materials chosen for lead-ins must be related with the contents and be considered with students’ psychological characteristics. The effect of lead-ins is to develop students’ interests and inspire students’ thirst for knowledge.
  2.5 Making Clear the Teaching Direction and Study Goal
  The students will understand the motivation, the teaching style, the arrangement of the whole teaching course and the problems to be solved through lead-in parts. Under the guide of lead-ins, students will be self-controlling and self-arranging much better.
  Chapter 3 The Principles of Lead-ins
  3.1 The Principles
  When we are designing lead-ins, there are some principles that should be obeyed.
  3.1.1 Instruction
  Instruction means the designed lead-ins can inspire students to think about and to take part in the activities actively during the class and students pay full attention to the content all the time. In another word, students’ interest will be aroused and they will study with high mood.
  3.1.2 Purpose
  Purpose means students will know the subjects and aims of the new class through lead-ins. A research shows clear and accurate study aims help students’ concentration. It can be said that the aim is the beacon when they are sailing in the ocean of knowledge.
  3.1.3 Relevance
  Relevance means there must be a link between the knowns and unknowns and the link should be natural, accurate and easy to be accepted. The materials chosen for lead-ins should be related with the main aims of the lesson.
  3.1.4 Briefness
  Briefness means it is not good to take up too much time when teachers are leading in a new lesson. It is usually 3~5mins.If teachers are spending longer time on lead-ins, it will cause the unclear teaching aims and key points.
  Chapter 4 Different Lead-in Methods
  After reading chapter 2&3, we can see that lead-in part, the first step in teaching course, plays an important part in improving the teaching results. A proper lead-in can catch students’ attention quickly, make the class lively, and make the students learn actively as well. As a result, the whole procedure of teaching can go smoothly. There are various ways of leading in a new class. Teachers may select a proper one or some according to the material that we are teaching. While doing this, we’d better pay special attention to the purpose of teaching, use the best method to arouse students’ interests of studying, broaden their mind. Usually we can use the following methods to lead in a new lesson:
  4.1 Dialogue Lead-in Method
  As we know every student likes to show themselves, wants to be successful, and likes to be praised as well. Dialogue is a very good method to fulfill their desire for success and praise. According to the content and purpose of the course of the new lesson, we can talk about a certain topic with purpose, ask the questions from far to near, from simple to complicated, and direct the students in relaxed pleased atmosphere to take part in the activities. At the same time, teachers can exert subtle influence to help students complete the teaching mission. Take lessen4, unit 1primary English students’ book (PEP) Grade 3 for example
  As the students of Grade 3 have just learned English for a term, teachers should design simple dialogues and try the best to create a living language environment for students to read and make themselves in roles. As the following shows:
  T: Good morning/afternoon. I'm Miss...What is your name?
  S: I’m....
  T: Nice to meet you.
  S: Nice to meet you, too.
  T: I’m from...Where are you from?
  S: I’m from...
  T: Ok. Goodbye.
  S: Bye/See you.
  This dialogue is simple, which everyone can take part in. It will fully increase students’ confidence of studying English. With the high mood of studying, the students will grasp the knowledge easily. The whole class will go smoothly.
  4.2 The Brush Stroke Lead-in Method
  The characteristic of the brush stroke is simple, lively and vivid. We only draw roughly, not with the details of the picture. The psychology studies show that mankind’s sense of vision and hearing are the media in absorbing the knowledge and catching the information. (Among them the sense of vision occupies83%, the sense of hearing occupies 11%.) Therefore the vision is extremely important in mankind obtaining the knowledge. Here is an example:
  Draw many circles on the blackboard, then, ask students:
  What are they like?(The students may answer eggs, apples, balls, balloons and so on, which can make the students enlarge their thought.)
  Can you make up for the rest part? (Students come up to draw the rest part and finish them.)
  Then, teacher teaches the key words, phrases, and sentences by the drawing.
  This kind of lead-in method is vivid and full of imagination, which can change the lifeless text into vivid and brisk contents and present them in front of the students. It will deepen students’ impression and is helpful for the students to remember. At the same time, the match of text and the pictures can make the classroom atmosphere seem to be lively, and also make the English classroom increase the art’s magic power.
  4.3 Object Lead-in Method
  Object lead-in method is a method that teachers lead in a new lesson with some aids so that knowledge can be directly perceived through the vision. These aids include material objects, such as pictures, photos, slides, abbreviated drawing, and VCD act. Frequently, these kinds of aids can arouse the interests directly and attract the students’ attention in no time. Showing objects is more direct and more distinct than that you describe with language. It also can easily arouse students’ curiosity. Take unit2, Grade 3(PEP) for example:
  When teaching the words related to stationery, the teacher shows pens, pencils, rulers, crayons, pencil-cases, erasers one by one.
  T: What’s this? (T is showing a pencil.)
  S(in Grade 3):铅笔
  T: It’s a pencil. Pencil, Pencil (Students read after teacher.)
  T: Could you show me your pencils? (Students pick up their pencils.)
  The teacher teaches the other words in the same way. Then teacher asks one student to pick up the object after teacher says the name of the stationery. Next he shows the pictures of the words to practice. In this way, the real material makes students feel direct and real.
  4.4 Music Lead-in Method
  Music is a universal language. Most students are interested in some famous English songs. Teachers can play the tape and teach some English songs according to the content of the materials. There are some chants and songs in the primary English textbooks. Teachers should make good use of them. Take lesson3, unit2, Grade 3(PEP) for example:
  In order to give every student a deeper impression of the text, a teacher changes the song on the textbook into a Disney song It will be better at home. It’s easier and more suitable than the song in the textbook. The sweet melody and simple lyrics immediately arouse the strong interest of students, and also arouse the desire of learning and the enthusiasm for reading the English text. Everyone shows great interest in the song and learn it actively. The students will understand the word family by the lyrics. At the same time, it is a good way to cultivate the students’ love toward families.淘宝网女装夏装新款眼膜好用的乳液哪种好比较什么BB霜好用排名洁阴哪个好
  There also are many chants in the textbooks that sound pleasant. Take lesson1, unit 2, Grade 5(PEP) for example:
  The chant says “When is your birthday? When is your birthday? Listen and do. Listen and do. January or February, raise your hand. March or April, up you stand. May or June, touch your nose. July or August, touch your toes. September or October, touch your knees. November or December, clap 1, 2 and 3.”
  Students like the chants very much. Some of them have learned the chant by tape before class. Because of the existence of the music, the teaching difficulty is lowered. Therefore, the students will be more active in the class.
  4.5 Questions Lead-in Method
  The question method is the most common way when teachers are teaching. It is also a simple way to lead in a new lesson. Sometimes the teacher can ask the students some questions which directly lead in the subject. Here is an example from lesson 3 unit2, Grade 5(PEP):
  T: When do you get up?
  S: Usually I get up at 6:30A.M.
  T: When do you have supper?
  S: I often have supper at 6:00 P.M.
  T: What do you do in the evening?
  S: I do my homework, watch TV and read books.
  T: What do you do on the weekend?
  S: I watch TV and go shopping. Sometimes I visit my grandparents.
  In this example, the questions are properly used to review the phrases such as “do homework” “watch TV” “go shopping” and the sentences “What do you do .....” and “When do you do ...”and so on.
  With these questions, we can review the knowledge we have learned and can prepare students for some knowledge of the text, and we can deal with some new words in the lesson beforehand as well.
  4.6 Situational Lead-in Method
  As the students are full of curiosity, and they are eager to act, we can design a situation, which is closely related with the content of the material. The students can get a preliminary impression from this situation, and then develop their curiosity about the new lesson. Firstly Teachers will play the roles in the situation. Then teacher asks students to perform. Students are happy to act and they will understand the meaning of these sentences much more easily and deeply.
  This example is from unit 4, Grade 4(PEP).The teacher pretends to be the shop assistant, and students are consumers. T: Can I help you?
  S1:Yes.Can I have some rice and vegetables?
  T: Sure .Here you are.
  S1: Thank you.
  T: Sir? What would you like for dinner?
  S2: Some beef, soup and hamburgers.
  T: OK, here you are.
  S3: Can I have some noodles and French fries?
  T: OK, wait a minute.
  Through this situation, the students will know more about the food we eat every day. At the same time, the use of the expression, such as “Here you are.” “Can I have......?” can be mastered. When using situational lead-in method, teachers should have the ability of acting. Only teachers come into the situation firstly, and then the students will follow. So the designer needs to be capable.
  4.7 Multi-media Teaching Lead-in Method
  The multi-media extended education gathers the different pictures, text, images, voice, and vision to display the content of the various information, which making the lifeless knowledge interesting and abstract things concrete. It will display the content of course from the different angle, different level, in order to make the English class filled with vitality.
  When using the multi-media to display the course, teachers should choose the proper Power Points according to the characteristics of the teaching content. It is very effective to use multi-media teaching, for primary students will show great interest in it. A good Power Point could arouse children’s interest fully. The students in primary school desire to express something (perhaps only some phrase) after watching some flashes. Teachers should encourage them to express their thoughts. With the help of multi-media teaching, students can feel and understand the content easily in relaxing happy atmosphere, which we are easy to see the teaching result.
  One point has to be pointed out here that Power Points are just the aids for teaching. Teachers should guide students to learn by her/his charm. We can achieve good effect when using multi-media teaching method. However, not all primary schools have the equipments, especially in some rural areas.
  4.8 Games Lead-in Method
  Game teaching is an important method of English teaching. It can stimulate students’ interest in learning. At the same time, students can gain more knowledge and achieve the development of their intelligence. The appropriate teaching games can help the students learn English easier and make them more active. They can also train students’ the spirit of cooperation and active thinking. Games are effective because they provide motivation, lower students' stress, and give them the opportunity for real communication.
  There is an example: It is called “Ha ha” game. The teacher prepares twelve pieces of paper, on which twelve months are written, and put them into one box. The teacher needs to prepare another box in which there are some pieces of paper about weather, such as hot, cold, windy, rainy ,snowy ,wet and so on. When the game begins, one student extracts two cards from the two boxes. Then he/she needs to make sentence by using the words on the two pieces of paper. For example, July is hot. If the sentence is the fact, the other students will repeat the adjective: hot, hot, hot. If the sentence is not right, for instance, February is hot. Then the other students will say. “Ha ha, it is so funny!” Through this game, students will review the words about months and weather.
  Game is one of the basic teaching skills, which can make every student participate in. Under the guide of teachers, games help to create lively atmosphere and draw students’ attention to class activities.
  Of course, there are many other lead-in methods. Here the paper just introduces some of them. When teaching a new lesson, we can make good use of one kind of method or many kinds of methods together. With the help of these good lead-in methods, there is no doubt that effective teaching result will be achieved. And the English class is successful.
  Chapter 5 Some Requirements for English Teachers
  If you want to be a successful teacher, some certain things you tend to have. Teachers should usually:
  5.1 Know Students Are the Master of Studying
  The research shows teachers not only use knows to teach unknowns by lead-ins, but also direct students to be the master of studying by independent thinking, speaking and performing. Teachers had better ask questions to encourage students to take part in the activities, instead of just listening or taking notes.
  5.2 Keep Observing and Predict the Students’ Reaction beforehand
  Teachers may find out the relation between textbooks and the topical issues. At the same time, teachers had better understand the students’ psychological characteristics and think about the difficulties students may encounter and give timely help when necessary.
  5.3 Have a Practical Command of English, Not Just a Knowledge of Grammar Rules
  As far as it is concerned, a teacher’s development of a command of English should be a life—long hobby as well as a professional obligation. Of course, a knowledge of the rules and terminology of English grammar and vocabulary is also useful. But teaching, especially language teaching, is much more than just the transfer of knowledge.
  5.4 Use English Most of the Time in Every Class, Including Beginners’ Classes
  If teachers follow this point, it means that their learners constantly experience the real communicative use of English. It increases their exposure to the language through listening comprehension, and gives them opportunities to speak English.
  5.5 Think Mostly in Terms of Learner Practice, Not Teacher Explanations
  It relates to two general observations about teaching and learning languages. First, explanations often became long, complicated discussions in the learners’ native language, which may leave little time for the practice and use of English. Second, most people seem to learn much more from use of a language than from explanations about it.
  5.6 Choose Interested and Natural Questions
  The questions, serving teaching, should be the reflection of life, society and times. It is not a good way to design questions just for fun. If the questions are meaningless, we’d better cut them off. (Davies.E and Pearse.E, 2002, p 16 )
  Chapter6 Conclusion
  The 21st century is the century of innovation and 21st century is a century of creative education. During teaching, teachers insist on putting the students in the first place, Teachers should establish the “people-oriented” education concept. Although the primary students are very young, they are growing. They have their own feeling. Teachers should make good use of students’ characteristics and design proper lead-ins carefully. When designing lead-ins, teachers must consider the principles and try to use the best method. At the same time, teachers should think about students’ reaction and feeling. Sometimes, actual situation must be considered. In order to be a successful teacher, teachers need to improve themselves. With the help of different lead-in methods, the whole classroom teaching will be a shining one.
  BIBLIOGRAPHY
  [1] Davies.E and Pearse,E, Success in English Teaching [M].上海:上海教育出版社.2002.
  [2] 郭跃进.新课程教学法[M].长春:东北师范大学出版社.2004.
  [3] 孔凡哲.上好课-有效技能[M].长春:东北师范大学出版社.2009.
  [4] 李冲锋.教学技能应用指导[M].上海:华东师范大学出版社.2007.
  [5] 孙玉明,李铁军.上好一堂课的22个关键要素[M].北京:光明日报出版社.2006.
  [6] 周燕.“四位一体”教学法优质课大赛第六届专辑[M].北京:英语辅导报出版社.2003.

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